## Bits and Bytes

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

Most computer operations involve manipulation of data stored in various memories. The smallest unit of computer memory is called a bit. When a bit is set its value is taken to be equal to 1 and when it is reset its value is taken to be 0. Thus, a bit can have one of the two values, i.e., 0 or 1. In electronics, memory circuits are called flip-flops. A flip-flop is the name given to a memory circuit which behaves in a manner similar to a switch. When a switch is set on, there is high voltage at its output and it remains on till it is reset ill which case the voltage at its output terminal becomes 0. Similarly, when a flip-flop is set its value is taken as 1 and when it is reset its value becomes 0. One flip-flop represents one bit of memory. The output state can be manipulated according to the input signal to the flip-flop. Since bits are extremely small units of memory, in computer programs we often deal with groups of bits. A group of 8 bits is called a byte.

## What is RAM (random access memory)? Definition

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

What is RAM (pronounced as raem), Ram full form " random access memory " and is volatile. First we'll tell you what RAM memory alternatively referred to as main memory, primary memory, or system memory, Random Access Memory (RAM) in a computer system, it is also sometimes known as read-write memory or RWM, then we'll go over how RAM works in Macintoshes and pcs. Also, there are different kinds of RAM, including VRAM, PRAM, DRAM and SRAM

## What is Machine Code or Machine Language?

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

Computer is a collection of digital electronic circuits in which the memory circuits play a major role. The input to as well as outputs from the microprocessor are all expressed in terms of voltages applied on the specified set of terminals meant for input and outputs, respectively. We may code the high value of voltage (typical value 5 V) as 1 and low value of voltage (typical value 0) as 0. Thus, an instruction to the microprocessor of the computer may be represented as a sequence of 0s and 1s (ones and zeros), such as 11001001. These ones and zeros are electronic signals that tell the computer what to do. In fact, microprocessors are designed to carry out a large number of instructions. The manufacturers supply the set of instructions and their respective codes.

## What is Byte?

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

A byte is a group of eight bits. Bit, short for Binary digit,which can represent any number in the range 00000000 To 11111111 Binary, or 0 To 255 Decimal. From the early days of digital computing, it is the basic unit of information within a computer, equal to a 1 or a 0. It is used to measure both memory size (Kilobytes, Megabytes) and data transfer speed (Kilobytes per second). Eight individual electronic on/off signals, strung together to make a message that the computer can interpret. Bits are stored within the computer's microchips and are led by control the flow of electrical currents; a 1 is represented by an "on" or high voltage electrical current, and a 0 is represented by an "off" or low current. A byte is formed by combining eight bits together to store the equivalent of one character. For example, the letter A (a single byte) is made up of the eight bits 01000001.

## What is Bit (Binary digit)?

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

Bit is short for Binary digit. A bit is a single digit, either a 1 or a 0, and it is the fundamental unit of information in computing, communications and physics. Binary numbers (bits) are stored within a computer's microchips by turning an electrical current "on" or "off"; a 1 is represented by an "on" or high voltage current, and a 0 is represented by an "off" or low current.

## What is Binary Numbers?

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

The binary system is a method for working with numbers based on only two digits: 1 and 0 (binary is also known as "base two"). Binary numbers are the basis for computer storage. Input into the computer is changed into binary numbers that the computer can store and manipulate. A binary numbering system uses a series of 1's and 0's to represent any number. Non-numbers (such as the letter D) or characters (such as a question mark) are assigned an eight digit binary number so that they too can be represented within the computer.

## What is ASCII Code?

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

ASCII Stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange (pronounced 'as-key').  This is a standard set of characters understood by all computers, consisting mostly of letters and numbers plus a few basic symbols such as \$ and %. Which employs the 128 possible 7-bit integers to encode the 52 uppercase and lowercase letters and 10 numeric digits of the Roman alphabet, plus punctuation characters and some other symbols. The fact that almost everyone agrees on ASCII makes it relatively easy to exchange information between different programs, different operating systems, and even different computers.

## What are BCD numbers

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

Meaning of BCD – "Binary Coded Decimal", is a method that use binary digits 0 which represent “off” and 1 which represent “on”. BCD has been in use since the first UNIVAC computer. Each digit is called a bit. Four bits are called a nibble and is used to represent each decimal digit (0 through 9).

## What is EBCDIC(Extended Binary Coded Decimal Inter change code)?

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

EBCDIC(pronounced "ebb see dick") is short for extended binary coded decimal interchange code is eight bits, or one byte, wide. This is a coding system used to represent characters-letters, numerals, punctuation marks, and other symbols in computerized text. A character is represented in EBCDIC by eight bit. EBCDIC mainly used on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems. Each byte consists of two nibbles, each four bits wide. The first four bits define the class of character, while the second nibble defines the specific character inside that class.

## Explain ASCII, Unicode and Gray Code

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

ASCII : ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that work with text. ASCII, pronounced "ask-ee" is the acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. It's a set of characters which, unlike the characters in word processing documents, allow no special formatting like different fonts, bold, underlined or italic text. ASCII is computer code for the interchange of information between terminals.

Dinesh Thakur holds an B.C.A, MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.

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